La cura della persona e dell’ambiente di lavoro come opportunità di crescita per le organizzazioni

Innovare il business model per affrontare sfide organizzative

Questo articolo esplora in che modo le possibilità offerte dalle tecnologie digitali e la relativa trasformazione del business model influenzino le regole della competizione tra imprese.

L’impatto è notevole sia al livello più alto delle scelte aziendali, quelle relative al business model, sia al livello immediatamente inferiore, che riguarda l’attività di gestione strategica e i framework che la guidano.

L’articolo si apre con l’osservazione che i driver del vantaggio competitivo si sono evoluti nel tempo al punto che oggi il successo di lungo termine dell’impresa dipende dalla capacità di innovazione dei suoi modelli di business.

Ciò ci porta a effettuare un’analisi della letteratura sul business modeling che ci permette di identificare due approcci fondamentali: quelli statici, dominanti in letteratura, e gli approcci dinamici, più adatti a fornire regole di progettazione organizzativa adeguate all’economia digitale.

L’approccio dinamico al business modeling si riflette anche sull’evoluzione della ricerca e della pratica in ambito strategico mettendo in crisi uno degli archetipi manageriali di maggior successo del secolo scorso: il costrutto del vantaggio competitivo, che, in un ambiente VUCA dove si compete integrandosi dinamicamente al proprio ecosistema organizzativo, non è più in grado di spiegare i meccanismi di creazione del valore basati su piattaforme, Open innovation ed ecosistemi.

Questa evoluzione comporta importanti implicazioni organizzative.

 

Bibliografia integrale

Adner, R. and R. Kapoor, Value creation in innovation ecosystems: How the structure of technological interdependence affects firm performance in new technology generations. Strategic management journal, 2010. 31(3): 306-333.

Adner, R., J.E. Oxley, and B.S. Silverman, Collaboration and competition in business ecosystems. Collaboration and Competition in Business Ecosystems. 2013: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Afuah, A. and C.L. Tucci, Crowdsourcing as a solution to distant search. Academy of Management Review, 2012. 37(3): 355-375.

Afuah, A., Are network effects really all about size? The role of structure and conduct. Strategic Management Journal, 2013. 34(3): 257-273.

Aghina, W., et al., The 5 Trademarks of Agile Organizations, M. Company, Editor. 2017. 20.

Akbar, Y.H. and A. Tracogna, The sharing economy and the future of the hotel industry: Transaction cost theory and platform economics. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 2018. 71: 91-101.

Altman, E.J. and M.L. Tushman, Platforms, Open/User Innovation, and Ecosystems: A Strategic Leadership Perspective (Harvard Business School Working Paper 17-076). 2017, Harvard Business School. 45.

Amit, R. and C. Zott, Value creation in e‐business. Strategic management journal, 2001. 22(6‐7): 493-520.

Baldwin, C.Y. and E. Von Hippel, Modeling a paradigm shift: From producer innovation to user and open collaborative innovation. Organization Science, 2011. 22(6): 1399-1417.

Baldwin, C.Y., C. Hienerth, and E. Von Hippel, How user innovations become commercial products: A theoretical investigation and case study. Research policy, 2006. 35(9): 1291-1313.

Baldwin, C.Y., Introducing Open Platforms and Business Ecosystems, in HBS Working Papers, H. University, Editor. 2018: Cambridge MA.

Baxter, R. and S. Matear, Measuring intangible value in business-to-business buyer–seller relationships: An intellectual capital perspective. Industrial Marketing Management, 2004. 33(6): 491-500.

Benkler, Y., The wealth of networks: How social production transforms markets and freedom. 2006, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Bennett, N. and J.G. Lemoine, What a difference a word makes: Understanding threats to performance in a VUCA world. Business Horizons, 2014. 57(3): 311-317.

Bogers, M., et al., The open innovation research landscape: Established perspectives and emerging themes across different levels of analysis. Industry and Innovation, 2016: 1-33.

Boley, H. and E. Chang. Digital ecosystems: Principles and semantics. in Digital EcoSystems and Technologies Conference, 2007. DEST’07. Inaugural IEEE-IES. 2007. IEEE.

Boudreau, K., Open platform strategies and innovation: Granting access vs. devolving control. Management Science, 2010. 56(10): 1849-1872.

Bower, J.L. and C.M. Christensen, Disruptive technologies: catching the wave. Harvard Business Review, 1995. 73(Jan Feb): 43-53.

Brandenburger, A. and B. Nalebuff, Co-opetition : 1. a revolutionary mindset that combines competition and cooperation in the marketplace : 2. the game theory strategy that’s changing the game of business. 1996, New York ; London: Currency Doubleday.

Brown, T., Change by Design: How Design Thinking Transforms Organizations and Inspires Innovation. 2009.

Brynjolfsson, E. and A. McAfee, The second machine age : work, progress, and prosperity in a time of brilliant technologies. First Edition. ed. 2014, New York: W. W. Norton & Company. pages cm.

Casadesus-Masanell, R. and J.E. Ricart, Competing through business models, I.B. School, Editor. 2007: Madrid.

Casadesus-Masanell, R. and J.E. Ricart, From strategy to business models and onto tactics. Long range planning, 2010. 43(2): 195-215.

Casadesus-Masanell, R. and J.E. Ricart, How to design a winning business model. Harvard business review, 2011. 89(1/2): 100-107.

Chandler, A.D., The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business. 1977, Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press.

Chesbrough, H.W. and M.M. Appleyard, Open innovation and strategy. California management review, 2007. 50(1): 57-76.

Chesbrough, H.W., Business model innovation: it’s not just about technology anymore. Strategy & leadership, 2007. 35(6): 12-17.

Chesbrough, H.W., W. Vanhaverbeke, and J. West, Open innovation : researching a new paradigm. 2008, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Choudary, S., M.W. Van Alstyne, and G.G. Parker, Platform revolution: How networked markets are transforming the economy–and how to make them work for you. 2016: WW Norton & Company.

Christensen, C.M. and M. Overdorf, Meeting the challenge of disruptive change. Harvard business review, 2000. 78(Mar Apr): 66-77.

DaSilva, C.M. and Trkman, Business model: What it is and what it is not. Long range planning, 2014. 47(6): 379-389.

De Reuver, M., H. Bouwman, and I. MacInnes. What drives business model dynamics? A case survey. in Management of ebusiness, 2007. wcmeb 2007. eighth world congress on the. 2007. IEEE.

Denning, S., Christensen updates disruption theory. Strategy Leadership, 2016. 44(2): 10-16.

Drucker, , The principles of management. New York, 1954.

Felin, T. and T.C. Powell, Designing organizations for dynamic capabilities. California Management Review, 2016. 58(4): 78-96.

Felin, T. and T.R. Zenger, Closed or open innovation? Problem solving and the governance choice. Research Policy, 2014. 43(5): 914-925.

Foss, N.J., L. Frederiksen, and F. Rullani, Problem-formulation and problem-solving in self-organized communities: How modes of communication shape project behaviors in the free open-source software community. Strategic management journal, 2016. 37(13): 2589-2610.

Gawer, A. and M.A. Cusumano, Industry platforms and ecosystem innovation. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 2014. 31(3): 417-433.

Gawer, A. and M.A. Cusumano, Platform leadership: How Intel, Microsoft, and Cisco drive industry innovation. 2002: Harvard Business School Press Boston.

Gibson, C.B. and J. Birkinshaw, The antecedents, consequences, and mediating role of organizational ambidexterity. Academy of management Journal, 2004. 47(2): 209-226.

Hagiu, A. and J. Wright, Marketplace or reseller? Management Science, 2014. 61(1): 184-203.

Hagiu, A. and J. Wright, Multi-sided platforms. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 2015. 43: 162-174.

Hall, R., A framework linking intangible resources and capabiliites to sustainable competitive advantage. Strategic management journal, 1993. 14(8): 607-618.

Hannan, M.T. and J. Freeman, The population ecology of organizations. American journal of sociology, 1977. 82(5): 929-964.

Howe, J., Crowdsourcing: How the power of the crowd is driving the future of business. 2008: Random House.

Jørgensen, S. and L.J.T. Pedersen, Experimentation Rather than Turnaround, in RESTART Sustainable Business Model Innovation. 2018, Springer. 75-88.

Katz, M.L. and C. Shapiro, Network externalities, competition, and compatibility. The American economic review, 1985. 75(3): 424-440.

Keidel, R.W., Seeing organizational patterns: A new theory and language of organizational design. 1995: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Keidel, R.W., Strategy made simple: Thinking in threes. Business Horizons, 2013. 56(1): 105-111.

Keidel, R.W., Triangular design: a new organizational geometry. Academy of Management Perspectives, 1990. 4(4): 21-37.

Kleinbaum, A.M. and M.L. Tushman, Building bridges: The social structure of interdependent innovation. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 2007. 1(1‐2): 103-122.

Kotter, J., Accelerate: building strategic agility for a faster-moving world. 2014, Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business Review Press.

Kotter, J., Leading change. 1996: Harvard Business Press.

Liboni, L.B., et al., Sustainability as a dynamic organizational capability: a systematic review and a future agenda toward a sustainable transition. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2017. 142: 308-322.

Lu, Y. and K. K. Ramamurthy, Understanding the link between information technology capability and organizational agility: An empirical examination. Mis Quarterly, 2011: 931-954.

Magretta, J., Why business models matter, in Harvard Business Review. 2002, Harvard Business School Press: Cambridge, MA. 3-8.

March, J.G., Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organization science, 1991. 2(1): 71-87.

McGrath, R.G., The end of competitive advantage : how to keep your strategy moving as fast as your business. 2013, Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business Review Press. xviii, 204 pages.

Nahapiet, J. and S. Ghoshal, Social Capital, Intellectual Capital, and the Organizational Advantage. Academy of Management Review, 1998. 23(2): 242-266.

O’Reilly III, C.A. and M.L. Tushman, Lead and disrupt: How to solve the innovator’s dilemma. 2016: Stanford University Press.

O’Mahony, S. and B.A. Bechky, Boundary organizations: Enabling collaboration among unexpected allies. Administrative Science Quarterly, 2008. 53(3): 422-459.

O’Reilly, C.A. and M.L. Tushman, Organizational ambidexterity: Past, present, and future. The Academy of Management Perspectives, 2013. 27(4): 324-338.

Osterwalder, A. and Y. Pigneur, Business model generation: a handbook for visionaries, game changers, and challengers. 2010: John Wiley & Sons.

Ozcan, and K.M. Eisenhardt, Origin of alliance portfolios: Entrepreneurs, network strategies, and firm performance. Academy of Management Journal, 2009. 52(2): 246-279.

Pfeffer, J. and G.R. Salancik, The external control of organizations: A resource dependence perspective. 1978: Stanford University Press.

Porter, M.E., Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. 1985, New York, London: Free Press; Collier Macmillan. xviii, 557

Porter, M.E., Competitive strategy: Techniques for analyzing industries and competitors. 1980: Simon and Schuster.

Raisch, S., et al., Organizational ambidexterity: Balancing exploitation and exploration for sustained performance. Organization science, 2009. 20(4): 685-695.

Ramirez, R., Value co-production: intellectual origins and implications for practice and research. Strategic Management Journal, 1999: 49-65.

Ricciardi, F., A. Zardini, and C. Rossignoli, Organizational dynamism and adaptive business model innovation: The triple paradox configuration. Journal of Business Research, 2016. 69(11): 5487-5493.

Ries, E., The lean startup: How today’s entrepreneurs use continuous innovation to create radically successful businesses. 2011: Crown Books.

Rochet, J.C. and J. Tirole, Platform competition in two‐sided markets. Journal of the european economic association, 2003. 1(4): 990-1029.

Ross, J., Architect Your Company for Agility. MIT Sloan Management Review, 2018(Winter): 5.

Schwaber, K., Scrum development process, in Business object design and implementation. 1997, Springer. 117-134.

Sebastian, I.M., et al., How Big Old Companies Navigate Digital Transformation. 2017.

Spieth, , D. Schneckenberg, and J.E. Ricart, Business model innovation–state of the art and future challenges for the field. R&D Management, 2014. 44(3): 237-247.

Stabell, C.B. and Ø.D. Fjeldstad, Configuring value for competitive advantage: on chains, shops, and networks. Strategic management journal, 1998: 413-437.

Statista, Projected retail e-commerce GMV share of Amazon in the United States from 2016 to 2021. 2018, Statista The Statistical Portal.

Subramani, M., How do suppliers benefit from information technology use in supply chain relationships? Mis Quarterly, 2004: 45-73.

Tallon, and A. Pinsonneault, Competing perspectives on the link between strategic information technology alignment and organizational agility: insights from a mediation model. Mis Quarterly, 2011: 463-486.

Thornton, H. and W. Ocasio, Institutional logics and the historical contingency of power in organizations: Executive succession in the higher education publishing industry, 1958–1990 1. American journal of Sociology, 1999. 105(3): 801-843.

Thornton, H., W. Ocasio, and M. Lounsbury, The institutional logics perspective: A new approach to culture, structure, and process. 2012: Oxford University Press on Demand.

Timmers, , Business models for electronic markets. Electronic markets, 1998. 8(2): 3-8.

Tushman, M.L. and C.A. O’Reilly, The ambidextrous organizations: Managing evolutionary and revolutionary change. California management review, 1996. 38(4): 8-30.

Venier, F., Trasformazione digitale e capacità organizzativa. 2017, Trieste: EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste.

von Hippel, E. and G. von Krogh, Open source software and the “private-collective” innovation model: Issues for organization science. Organization science, 2003. 14(2): 209-223.

Von Hippel, E., Democratizing Innovation, Cambridge Massachusettes. 2005, The MIT Press.

Von Hippel, E., Lead users: a source of novel product concepts. Management science, 1986. 32(7): 791-805.

Weill, and S. Woerner, Surviving in an Increasingly Digital Ecosystem. MIT Sloan Management Review, 2018. 59(2): 26-28,28A.

Weill, and S. Woerner, Thriving in an increasingly digital ecosystem. MIT Sloan Management Review, 2015. 56(4): 27-34.

West, J., et al., Open innovation: The next decade. 2014, Elsevier.

Wirtz, B. and Daiser, Business Model Innovation Processes: A Systematic Literature Review. Journal of Business Models, 2018. 6(1): 40-58.

Wirtz, B.W., O. Schilke, and S. Ullrich, Strategic development of business models: implications of the Web 2.0 for creating value on the internet. Long range planning, 2010. 43(2): 272-290.

Wry, T., J.A. Cobb, and H.E. Aldrich, More than a metaphor: Assessing the historical legacy of resource dependence and its contemporary promise as a theory of environmental complexity. Academy of Management Annals, 2013. 7(1): 441-488.

Zain, M., et al., The relationship between information technology acceptance and organizational agility in Malaysia. Information & Management, 2005. 42(6): 829-839.

Zenger, T., Beyond competitive advantage: How to solve the puzzle of sustaining growth while creating value. 2016: Harvard Business Review Press.

Zhu, F. and M. Iansiti, Entry into platform‐based markets. Strategic Management Journal, 2012. 33(1): 88-106.

Zott, C., R. Amit, and L. Massa, The business model: recent developments and future research. Journal of management, 2011. 37(4): 1019-1042.

 

L’articolo completo è stato pubblicato sul numero di Novembre-Dicembre di Sviluppo&Organizzazione.
Per informazioni sull’acquisto di copie e abbonamenti scrivi a daniela.bobbiese@este.it (tel. 02.91434400)

 

Lascia un commento

Il tuo indirizzo email non sarà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *

Cookie Policy | Privacy Policy

© 2019 ESTE Srl - Via Cagliero, 23 - Milano - TEL: 02 91 43 44 00 - FAX: 02 91 43 44 24 - segreteria@este.it - P.I. 00729910158
logo sernicola sviluppo web milano