La conciliazione tra vita privata e lavoro: il caso delle imprenditrici italiane
Il presente lavoro intende interrogarsi sul dibattuto tema del conflitto vita familiare-vita lavorativa guardando alla realtà dell’imprenditoria femminile italiana. Le imprenditrici italiane, in prevalenza donne giovani e istruite, hanno aspirazioni e motivazioni sempre più sbilanciate sul versante della realizzazione personale e professionale e sempre meno sul versante della necessità.
Queste trasformazioni, già in atto da alcuni anni anche in altri Paesi, stanno dunque segnalando la necessità di occuparsi di questioni spesso ritenute risolte attraverso la scelta imprenditoriale, prima tra tutte il problema della conciliazione. I problemi legati al bilanciamento tra i carichi domestici e la vita professionale, ampiamente indagati e approfonditi rispetto al lavoro dipendente, sono però ancora poco presenti negli studi più specificamente dedicati alle imprenditrici.
Applicando il modello teorico del work-family conflict (WFC) all’analisi dell’esperienza di 387 imprenditrici italiane, il presente lavoro intende colmare tale gap analizzando, in particolare, come le specificità connesse alla sfera lavorativa e quelle connesse alla sfera familiare possano avere un impatto sull’interferenza del lavoro sulla vita familiare (ILF) e sull’interferenza della vita familiare sul lavoro (IFL).
La bibliografia completa
Aidis R. e Wetzels C. (2007), Self- employment and parenthood: exploring the impact of partners, children and gender, in IZA Discussion Paper, No. 2813.
Aiken L.S. e West S.G. (1991), Multiple regression: testing and interpreting interactions, SAGE, Newbury Park.
Amstad F.T., Meier L.L., Fasel U., Elfering A. e Semmer N.K. (2011), A meta-analysis of work-family conflict and various outcomes with a special emphasis on cross-domain versus matching-domain relations, in Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16 (2), 151–69.
Annink A., den Dulk L. e Steijn B. (2016), Work-family conflict among employees and the self-employed across Europe, in Social indicators research, 126 (2), 571-593.
Arai B. (2008), Self-employment as a response to the double day for women and men in Canada, in Canadian Review of Sociology, 37 (2), 125–42.
Bellavia G. M. e Frone M.R. (2005), Work-family conflict, in Handbook of work stress, 113-147.
Bertolini S. e Goglio V. (2011), L’imprenditoria femminile come strumento di innovazione per lo sviluppo locale, in Sociologia del lavoro, 122, 206-217.
Bird B. e Brush C. (2002), A gendered perspective on organizational creation., in Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 26 (3), 41–65.
Bruni A., Gherardi S. e Poggio B. (2004), Gender and entrepreneurship: an ethnographic approach, Routledge, London.
Brush C.G. (1992), Research on women business owners: past trends, a new perspective and future directions, in Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 16 (4), 5–30.
Brush C.G., Carter N.M., Gatewood E.J., Greene P.G. e Hart M.M. (2006), Growth oriented women entrepreneurs and their businesses: A global research perspective, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham/Northampton.
Byron K. (2005), A meta-analytic review of work-family conflict and its antecedents, in Journal of vocational behavior, 67 (2), 169-198.
Caputo R.K. e Dolinsky A. (1998), Women’s choice to pursue self-employment: the role of financial and human capital of household members, in Journal of Small Business Management, 36 (3), 8–17.
Chin W.W., Marcolin B.L. e Newsted P.R. (2003), A partial least squares latent variable modeling approach for measuring interaction effects: results from a Monte Carlo simulation study and an electronic-mail emotion/adoption study, in Information Systems Research, 14 (2), 189-217.
De Simone S. e Priola V. (2015), What’s woman’s work? Work-family interface among women entrepreneurs in Italy, in Broadbridge A. M. e Fielden S. L. (a cura di), Handbook of gendered careers in management: getting in, getting on, getting out, Edward Elgar Publishing, London.
De Vita L., Mari M. e Poggesi S. (2014), Le imprese femminili in Italia: i risultati di un’indagine esplorativa, in Impresa Progetto-Electronic Journal of Management, 2.
Eby L.T., Casper W.J., Lockwood A., Bordeaux C. e Brinley A. (2005), Work and family research in IO/OB: Content analysis and review of the literature (1980–2002), in Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66 (1), 124-197.
Frone M.R. (2003), Work-family balance, in Campbell J. e Tetrick L.E. (a cura di), Handbook of occupational health psychology, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, 143–162.
Frone M.R. e Rice R.W. (1987), Work‐family conflict: the effect of job and family involvement, in Journal of Organizational Behavior, 8 (1), 45-53.
Frone M.R., Russell M. e Cooper M.L. (1992a), Antecedents and outcomes of work-family conflict: testing a model of the work-family interface, in Journal of Applied Psychology, 77 (1), 65.
Frone M.R., Russell M. e Cooper M.L. (1992b), Prevalence of work-family conflict: are work and family boundaries asymmetrically permeable?, in Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13 (7), 723–729.
Gimenez-Nadal J.I., Molina J.A. e Ortega R. (2012), Self-employed mothers and the work-family conflict, in Applied Economics, 44 (17), 2133–48.
Greenhaus J.H. e Beutell N.J. (1985), Sources of conflict between work and family roles, in Academy of Management Review, 10 (1), 76-88.
Greenhaus J.H., Parasuraman S., Granrose C.S., Rabinowitz S. e Beutell N.J. (1989), Sources of work-family conflict among two-career couples, in Journal of Vocational Behavior, 34 (2), 133-153.
Gregory A. e Milner S. (2009), Editorial: work-life balance: a matter of choice?, in Gender, Work and Organization, 16 (1), 1-13.
Grzywacz J.G. e Butler A.B. (2008), Work-family conflict, in The SAGE Handbook of Organizational Behavior, SAGE, Newbury Park.
Gutek B.A., Searle S. e Klepa L. (1991), Rational versus gender role explanations for work-family conflict, in Journal of Applied Psychology, 76 (4), 560-568.
Haus I., Steinmetz H., Isidor R. e Kabst R. (2013), Gender effects on entrepreneurial intention: a meta-analytical structural equation model, in International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 5 (2), 130-56.
Heilbrunn S. e Davidovitch L. (2011), Juggling family and business work-family conflict of women entrepreneurs in Israel, in Journal of Entrepreneurship, 20 (1), 127-141.
Hughes K.D. e Jennings J.E. (2012), Global women’s entrepreneurship research. Diverse settings, questions and approaches, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham and Northampton (MA).
Hughes K.D., Jennings J.E., Brush C., Carter S. e Welter F. (2012), Extending women’s entrepreneurship research in new directions, in Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 36 (3), 429-442.
Jennings J. e McDougald M. (2007), Work-family interface experiences and coping strategies: implications for entrepreneurship research and practice, in Academy of Management Review, 32 (3), 747-760.
Kanungo R.N. (1982a), Work alienation and involvement: problems and prospects, in International Review of Applied Psychology, 30 (1), 1–15.
Kanungo R.N. (1982b), Measurement of Job and Work Involvement, in Journal of Applied Psychology, 67 (3), 341–349.
Kelloway E.K., Gottlieb B.H. e Barham L. (1999), The source, nature, and direction of work and family conflict: a longitudinal investigation, in Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 4 (4), 337-346.
Kim L.S.J. e Ling S.C. (2001), Work-family conflict of women entrepreneurs in Singapore, in Women in Management Review, 16 (5), 204-221.
Lewis P. (2006), The quest for invisibility: female entrepreneurs and the masculine norm of entrepreneurship, in Gender, Work and Organization, 13 (5), 453-469.
Manolova T., Carter N., Manev I. e Gyoshev B. (2007), The differential effect of men and women entrepreneurs’ human capital and networking on growth expectancies in Bulgaria, in Entrepreneurship: theory and practice, 31 (3), 407-426.
Mari M., Poggesi S. e De Vita L. (2016), Family embeddedness and business performance: evidences from women-owned firms, in Management Decision, 54 (2), 476-500.
McGowan P., Lewis C., Cooper S. e Greenan K. (2012), Female entrepreneurship and the management of business and domestic roles: motivations, expectations and realities, in Entrepreneurship and Regional Development: An International Journal, 24 (1-2), 53-72.
Minniti M. (2009), Gender issues in entrepreneurship. Foundations and trends in entrepreneurship, 5 (7-8), 497-621.
Nasurdin A.M., Noor H.A. e Siti Rohaida M.Z. (2013), Comparing work-family conflict and facilitation among male and female entrepreneurs in Malaysia, in International Journal of Business and Society, 14 (1), 149-162.
Noor N. (2004), Work-family conflict, work- and family-role salience, and women’s well-being, in. Journal of Social Psychology, 144 (4), 389-405.
Parasuraman S. e Simmers C.A. (2001), Type of employment, work-family conflict and wellbeing: a comparative study, in Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22 (5), 551-568.
Poggesi S., Mari M. e De Vita L. (2015), Family and work-life balance mechanisms: what is their impact on the performance of Italian female service firms?, in The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 16 (1), 43-53.
Poggesi S., Mari M. e De Vita L. (2017), Women entrepreneurs and work-family conflict: an analysis of the antecedents, in International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal,DOI: 10.1007/s11365-017-0484-1.
Roomi M. (2009), Impact of social capital development and use in the growth process of women-owned firms, in Journal of Enterprising Culture, 17 (4), 473-495.
Shelton L.M. (2006), Female entrepreneurs, work–family conflict, and venture performance: New insights into the work–-family interface, in Journal of Small Business Management, 44 (2), 285-297.
Stoner C.R., Hartman R.I. e Arora R. (1990), Work-home role conflict in female owners of small businesses: an exploratory study, in Journal of Small Business Management, 28 (1), 30-38.
Taniguchi H. (2002), Determinants of women’s entry into self-employment, in Social Science Quarterly, 83 (3), 875-893.
Vallebona A. (2012), Istituzioni di diritto del lavoro, Cedam, Padova: Cedam.
Williams K. e Alliger G.M. (1994), Role stressors, mood spillover, and perceptions of work- family conflict in employed parents, in Academy of Management Journal, 37 (4), 837-868.
Zhang J. e Liu Y. (2011), Antecedents of work–family conflict: review and prospect, in International Journal of Business and Management, 6 (1), 89-103.